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The Solution


Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex

Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) is the final stage in the process of post-mastectomy breast reconstruction, usually occurring at least 3-4 months after augmentation in cancer patients . This component provides the final aesthetic for a completed breast formation. Various methods exist to recreate the nipple, ranging from tattoos to grafts and surgical flap reconstructions . 

The most common problem following nipple reconstruction is a decrease in projection or nipple flattening . 

While the research and techniques for nipple reconstruction have continued to evolve, there is no standard of care for this procedure. 





1 Gonzalo B, Marisabel R. Reconstruction of the Nipple: A New Technique. 1984, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 73, pp. 977-981.

2 Winocour A, Saksena A, Oh C. A Systematic Review of Comparison of Autologous, Allogeneic, and Synthetic Aug-mentation Grafts in Nipple Reconstruction. 2016, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 137, pp. 14-23

3 Farhadi J, Maksvytyte GK, Schaefer DJ. Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex: an update. 2006, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Vol. 59, pp. 40-53

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